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   Ireland  

    1)  Introducing

 

 

Ireland is the third largest island in north-western Europe, and the twentieth-largest island in the world. It lies to the north-west of continental Europe and is surrounded by hundreds of islands and islets. To the east of Ireland, separated by the Irish Sea, is the island of Great Britain. Politically, the state Ireland covers five-sixths of the island, with Northern Ireland, part of the United Kingdom, covering the remainder in the north-east.

It is bordered by Northern Ireland (part of the United Kingdom) to the north, by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and by the Irish Sea to the east. Ireland is a little bit smaller than the Czech Republic, but its population is near one third of the Czech state. Exactly population of the Republic of Ireland is 4,25 million. The west-coast of Ireland mostly consists of cliffs, hills and low mountains.

 

The Irish peoples called your motherland Éire.

 

The Anglo-Irish Treaty was ratified by the Dáil in January 1922 by a vote of 64 - 57. The minority refused to accept the result and this resulted in the Irish Civil War, which lasted until 1923. On 6th December 1922, in the middle of the Civil War, the Irish Free State came into being. During its early years the new state was governed by the victors of the Civil War.

 

 

 

 

 

"In Dublin's fair city, where the girls are so pretty, I first set my eyes on sweet Molly Malone..." that is illegal Dublin’s national anthern .

 

 

2)  History of Ireland

 

Hunters

Flat country is connected with comming of some thousands hunters from Scotland as Irish legends and also some archeologists say. There were good conditions to hunt some animals, so small groups  of hunters (usually whole families) travelled across country from camp to camp to hunt and collect food. These hunters had a hard life because they used only basic stone tools and fire.

Farmers

After some thousand years farmers came to Ireland from Europe, where farming was already known for three thousand years. They brought with them a totally new way of life, and very probably a new language, a more organised religion, new animals and unfortunately new diseases.

Celtic people

In third century before Christ Celts came into Ireland. They were first developed society with their own education, language, religion and culture. This period was a great time of Irish developement. Celts brought first feudalism and modern way of life. On the top of society was a king. It was also a time of druids, but it will be explained elsewhere. After some years they accepted chistianity.

Vikings

In 9th century Vikings settled on the east-coast and established a small kingdom named Dubh Linn. Then it changed into city of Dublin. Vikings were hard men with great hearts. First they were looking for gold and slaves. After some time they began to trade with others and they started to join original inhabitants of Ireland. Dublin fell under the Irish control after few battles. But it wasnt for a long time.

 

 

 

Normans

In 11th century came Normans, who were conquerors from France. They wanted power, they wanted to be barons and lords. First they conquered England and after that they conquered Ireland. Vikings were defeated. But there was a problem. Ireland wasnt united under contorl of one body. It was a connection of many small kingdoms and families, so Normans started to be influenced by local policy. They began to marry Irish ladies and at the end they become Irish too. In the end, rather than being destroyed by the Normans, Ireland was modernised by them.

 

It was not the Vikings, not the Normans, the third and final invasion that was to destroy the unique Celtic civilisation of Ireland.  And that was when the English came. Modern age began with them.

British empire ruled in Ireland for 8 hundred years, some time in peace, some time in war. And in the Anglo - Irish war from 1919 to 1922, the Irish fight out their independence. Northern Ireland stand under control of UK.

 

3) Religion                                                  

We dont know who did hunters and farmers believe in. When Celts came into Ireland there was a group of population, which named Druids – Celtic priests. Their religion was based on nature. They believed in basic natural powers and many people thought they were wizards. But Druids were very kind and according to myths they were right in their decitions. It was becase of their education. They were the philosophers, scientists, teachers. Druids had so important position, that they were often judges and counsellors to the kings.

In 4th century the Christianity was spreading in Ireland. Most famous missionar was St. Patrick, today the patron saint of Ireland. In his honor is celebrated St. Patricks Day on 17th March. Legend says that St. Patrick tought the Irish about the concept of the Trinity by showing people the shamrock, a 3-leaved clover, using it to highlight the Christian belief of 'three divine persons in the one God'.

Today 90% of Irish population is Roman-Catholic, 3% are Protestants, 0,1% are Jewish and the rest are atheists.

 

4) Traditions

Most known Irish traditions are St. Patricks Day, which is now celebrated in many countries, and Halloween. Meaning of St. Patricks Day was explained.

Halloween is a holiday celebrated on the night of October 31. The term Halloween is shortened from All-hallow-even. Originally Halloween is known as Samhain (pronounced "souin" or "sauin"). Its a celebration of all dead. Symbolic colors of Halloween are black and orange. Things associated to these colors are : death, night, witches, black cats, bats, vampires and pumpkins, jack o' lanterns, Autumn, the turning leaves, fire. Jack o' lantern is a special candle given to pumpkins.

 

 

 

5) New Ireland

Culture

Music and literature is close related to traditions. Irish culture is very special. For example Irish music. Irish music is relaxing and very temperament at the same time. People of Ireland very often use flutes and harphs. When we mention music, we have to say some words about dance. Irish dance is very popular in Ireland and also everybody can step their special dancing creations. All this is united in Irish parties in pubs, where many people also drink beer. Ireland is the second nation in drinking beer. We are first in this discipline. Irish people is just able to enjoy their life.

Irish literature is also world-known. I thing that almost everyone does know authors like Jonathan Swift, Oscar Wilde, George Bernard Shaw or James Joyce.

 

6) Ireland Today

It is necessary to say that economic of Ireland is in great expansion. Ireland is economicaly better than Switzerland now. Many people want to work there because of high earnings. Ireland is in world known as Irish Tiger. It is because of lot finantial help from USA and other investors. There are many people with Irish origin over the world, so Ireland has a big base of their economy. There are over 85,000,000 people of Irish originin all the world. That’s more than the population today of Poland, The Czech Republic, Slovakia, Switzerland, Croatia, Hungary and Austria together.

 

7) Famous people

 

There are several famoust peoples in the world which were born in Ireland.Every  world’s library consist the books of Bernard Shaw or James Joyce etc.Althaw the theatres in New-York,Paris and Tokio perfomed spectacles of  Ireland’s favourites writes.  Thats why the Irelands proud of themself.

 

 

Arthur Guinness (1725 - 1803)

In year 1759 established famous brewery St James's Gate a man which was call Guinness Brewery at Dublin, before that he do the beer in Leixlip. Today is this brewery at Dublin the biggest brewery in the Ireland and all word. .

Famous Guiness book of records, is too named as this brewery.

 

 

 

George Bernard Shaw

Occupation – Playwright,critic,political activist

Nationality – Irish

Genres – Satire

Academy Award for Writing Adapted Screenplay
1938 Pygmalion

Notable awards - Nobel Prize in Literature
1925

George Bernard Shaw (26 July 1856 Dublin, Ireland2 November 1950. Hertfordshire, England) was an Irish playwright. Born in Dublin, he moved to London at the age of twenty and lived in England for the remainder of his life.

Shaw married Charlotte Payne-Townshend, a fellow Fabian, whom he survived. They made their home in Ayot St. Lawrence in a house now called Shaw's Corner. Shaw died there, aged 94, from chronic problems exacerbated by injuries he incurred by falling.

He is the only person to have been awarded both the Nobel Prize for Literature (1925) and an Oscar (1938).

 

 

 

 

  VOCABULARY :

 

Cliffs – útesy                                        Fight out – vybojovat si                      

Unfortunately – naneštěstí                    Flute – flétna

Wizard – čaroděj                                Harph – harfa

Establish – založit                                Counsellor – poradce                         

Conquer – dobýt                                 Clover – jetel                                      

Candle – svíčka                                   Expansion – rozvoj

Divine – božský, duchovní                Influence – vliv, ovlivňovat

Pumpkin – dýně                                 Convey - dopravit

Rule – vládnout                                   Contrary - protikladný

Unloved – nemilovaný                       Unheard – zůstat bez povšimnutí

Vex – zlobit ,sužovat                         Vigorous – silný,vitální

Vigilante – bdělý                               Villain – lump,darebák

Wingspan – rozpětí křídel                  Wily – lstivý,uskočný 

Yodel – jodlovat                                 Yew – tisové dřevo,tis

The Lartigue Monorailway

 

 

         The Lartigue Monorail was a unique railway line which ran from Listowel to Ballybunion between 1888 & 1924. Reputed to be the only one of its type in the world to commercially operate, it was characterised by an engine and carriages which ran along a single rail standing 3 feet off the ground through the centre of the train. Designed by French engineer Charles Lartigue, you can now be part of history and experience this unique mode of transport at the reconstructed Lartigue Monorailway.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Notes :

 

Anglicko-český slovník,Fronek,Josef,nakladatelství LEDA,Praha 1998,1280str.

ISBN 80-85927-48-9

 

http://larkspirit.com/history/

http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~fianna/history/

http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~irlkik/ihm/

http://www.ucc.ie/celt/

http://www.irishhistoryonline.ie/

http://www.bubl.ac.uk/LINK/i/irishhistory.htm

http://members.tripod.com/~JerryDesmond/index-2.html

http://www.academicinfo.net/histirish.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Irish_people

http://www.irsko-aktualne.cz/z_historie.php?menuf=567

 

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